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Baroque Architecture

•Architecture prevailed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries and was characterized by elaborated forms of ornamentations. The composition of Baroque painting employs diagonal and zigzag lines that best express the vitality and movement quality of the Baroque art. Baroque style in architecture is marked by heavy sculptural and extravagantly ornamental façade. The giant twisted columns, broken pediments, scrolls, trellises, urns, and angels.
Baroque, sculpture generally used every conceivable type of ornamentation. The characters are generally religious figures. These are saints, angels, cherubs, animals, metal sunburst, with garlands of flowers, leaves, shells, and scrolls. These are usually painted in gold on wood or carved stones  The Baroque style, as an expression of religious emotionalism, eventually found its way into the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Central and South America.  And in East, Particularly in the Philippines, with the
widespread Christianization of the inhabitants.


In Gothic period, (about 1150-1400 A.D.) churches and building became increasingly larger, higher, and wider-until one collapsed. Gothic Architecture added some new ideas; flying buttresses
decorative outsides, pointed arches, and various technical improvements.

flying_buttresses  220px-FlyingButtresses


Gothic architects constructed huge buildings with large spaces inside for worship. Great stained windows were designed. These structures are still use in European cities. Notre Dame
in Paris, Westminster Abbey in London, and the Cathedral of Milan,NotreDameDeParis  West_Side_of_Westminster_Abbey,_London

NOTRE DAME, PARIS                                WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON

cathedral de Milan  CATHEDRAL OF MILAN

Cologne, Florence, and Chartes. Gothic public buildings like halls of Brussels, the city hall of Munich and Siena, Italy and the Doges Palace in Venice.

St_Mary_Redcliffe_adj_sky  COLOGNE, GERMANY

Il_Duomo_Florence_Italy  FLORENCE, ITALY

Belgium_Brussels hall   HALLS OF BRUSSELS, BELGIUM


The term Byzantine refers to the eastern branch of the Roman empire which existed from the founding of Constantinople by the Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D.

   The Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) was the name
of the Greek part of the Roman Empire which survived into the Middle Ages. Its capital was Constantinople, which today is in Turkey, and is now called Istanbul.


The classical and Asian artistic tradition merge in Byzantine art. This is the Asian two-dimensional or flat style, placing emphasis on clarity of line and sharpness of outline, As in Near Eastern(Persian) and Far Eastern(Chinese and Japanese) art. On the other hand, there is the Western 3-dimensional style of the classical tradition The icon portraying Christ, the crucifixion, or Mary as the Mother of Christ are examples of Byzantine artistic representation. These are the portable ivory carvings or wood panel paintings, often luxuriously ornamental with precious stones and gold background a symbol of divinity and perfection.A Byzantine icon which are most Lady of Perpetual Help. In Italy centers of Byzantine art were Ravennach25_100 handpainted_christ_200   EXAMPLES OF ICONS

The character of Byzantine architecture is by the novel development of the  dome cover polygonal and square plans for churches, tombs, and baptisteries.
300px-StSophiaChurch-Sofia-10     300px-SantApollininner

byzantine architecture   byzantine architecture

The Byzantine capitals are ornamental and abstract with a typical basketweave design. The walls are ornamented with mosaics of colored marble which give them a translucent and
(6th century), Rome, Venice and Sienna. glowing quality that creates an awesome, mystical effect. The aim of the Byzantine artist and architect was to create a reflection of the
splendor of heaven.


In contrast to the Roman love of luxury and worldly pleasures, as well as their thirst of power, Christianity introduced a new sense of values, laying emphasis on the spiritual and eternal life.

•Because of their worldly values, the early Christians invited misunderstanding and were persecuted by the Roman emperors. They had to live as fugitive, hiding under ground corridors  known as catacomb.
Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice.
                                      350px-A-Procession-in-the-Catacomb-of-Callistus CATACOMB
Here they were gathered for mass celebrated on tombs of the first martyrs of the church. Eventually the walls of catacomb were decorated with frescoes and beautiful , glowing mosaics, in honor of Christ, Mary and the converts own valiant comrades in persecution.
Fresco_within_the_of_Church_of_St_Nicholas_in_Mala_Strana_in_Prague     450px-Mariae_Verkuendigung_Fuchstal_Fresko_Magnifikat_1
Ferapontov    Sistine_jonah
Symbols took precedence over the presentation of God, Christ and Saints. The symbols served as a kind of religious code which enable the Christians to identify themselves. The prevalent Christian symbols were the cross, the fish, the lamb. The Greek letters Chi-Rho, Alpha and Omega. Triumphant wreaths, grapes, doves, and peacock.
133px-Simple_Labarum2_svg     CHIORHO     200px-Alpha-omega ALPHA OMEGA
220px-Harvest_Wreath    Labarum
Later, the artists portrayed Christ and the saints with
“Halos.” But the early Christian architecture was developed only at the end of
the era of Christian persecution.
The first known Christian church is the old Basilica of St. Peter in Rome, dedicated in 326 A.D. by Emperor Constantine.
  220px-Constantine_Chiaramonti_Inv1749    800px-Basilica_di_San_Pietro_1450
This early building for worship gave rise to the Basilica type, which became the basic structure for later churches. Its plan is longitudinal and oriented east and west.
Giovanni_Paolo_Panini_-_Interior_of_St__Peter's,_Rome  280px-Petersdom_von_Engelsburg_gesehen
220px-Christ_Hagia_Sofia          220px-Peter_in_Chora


The objectives of the game is to hit the ball with the racket or paddle held in the hand over the net. The ball must strike on the server’s side of the court before striking the top of the table on the opponent’s court. Whoever commits mistake looses point and your opponent gains a point. A player or pair first scoring 21 points is the winner of the game. The table tennis is also known as whiff-whaff, flim flam, and gossima.

The game originated in England during the 1880s, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that the game was first developed by British military officers in India or South Africa who brought it back with them. A row of books were stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball from one end of the table to the other. Alternatively table tennis was played with paddles made of cigar box lids and balls made of champagne corks. The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell equipment commercially. Early rackets were often pieces of parchment stretched upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of “wiff-waff” and “ping-pong”. A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley’s of Regent Street under the name “Gossima”. The name “ping-pong” was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. The name “ping-pong” then came to be used for the game played by the rather expensive Jaques’s equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the “ping-pong” name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers then enforced their trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to “table tennis” instead of the more common, but trademarked, term.


Diagram of a table tennis table showing the official dimensions

The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30 cm. The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matt, divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. The ITTF approves only wooden tables or their derivates. Concrete tables with a steel net are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.


•Service shall start with the ball resting on the open palm of the server’s stationary free hand.
•The server shall then project the ball near vertically upwards, without imparting spin, so that it rises at least 16 cm after leaving the palm.
•As the ball is falling, the server shall strike it so that it touches first his court and then, after passing over or around the net assembly, touches directly the receiver’s court, in doubles, the ball shall touch successively the right half court of server and receiver.
It is a fault if a player:
a. Fails to Make a good service.
b. Fails to make a good return.
c. If he volleys or obstructs the ball.
d. If the ball touches his court twice successively.
e. If he strikes the ball successively.
f. If he strikes the ball with the side of the racket  blade.
g. If while serving, he or his partner stamps his foot.
h. If he or anything he wears or carries, moves the playing surface while the ball is in play.
i. If his free hand touches the playing surface while the ball is in play.
 j. If he or anything he wears or carries, touches the net or its supports while the ball is in play.
k. If in doubles, he strikes the ball out of sequence.
A.The ball served, in passing over or around the net, touches it or its supports provided the
     service is good or volleyed by the receiver or his partner.
B. The server serves the ball and the receiver is not ready.
C. It is interrupted by correction of an error in playing order or ends.
D. It is interrupted for warning a player for a service doubtful correctness or that he has failed
     to notify a change of racket.
E. The condition of the play are disturbed by outside factors like the direction of the wind,
sunlight and ball crosses from the other table.
Definition of Terms:
•A rally is the period during which the ball is in play.
•The ball is in play from the last moment at which it is stationary on the palm of the free hand  before being intentionally projected in service until the rally is decided as a let or a point.
•A let is a rally of which the result is not scored.
•A point is a rally of which the result is scored.
•The racket hand is the hand carrying the racket.
•The free hand is the hand not carrying the racket; the free arm is the arm of the free hand.
•A player strikes the ball if he touches it in play with his racket.
•A player obstruct the ball if he, or anything he wears or carries touches it in play when it is above or travelling towards the playing surface.
•The server is the player due to strike the ball first in a rally.
•The receiver is the player due to strike the ball second in a rally.
•The umpire is the person appointed to control the match.
•The assistant umpire is the appointed person to assist the umpire with certain decision.
•Anything that a player wears or carries at the start of the rally •post.
•The ball shall regard as passing over or around the net assembly if it passes anywhere other than between the  net and the net.
•The end line shall be regarded as extending definitely in both directions.

Officiating Badminton

Badminton is one of the best recreational sports nowadays. It is very economical and can be played by people of all ages and varying skills and levels. It  enjoyable game for beginners but at the same time, can be an exciting game that requires stamina, speed, cleverness, and agility. In playing badminton, game officials are needed to be in full control of the match. Good officiating brings out the best in the playing ability of each player, while poor officiating can easily ruin the game.

Playing court dimensions[edit]

Badminton court, isometric view

The court is rectangular and divided into halves by a net. Courts are usually marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only.[10] The doubles court is wider than the singles court, but both are of same length. The exception, which often causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension.

The full width of the court is 6.1 metres (20 ft), and in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres (17 ft). The full length of the court is 13.4 metres (44 ft). The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres (6 ft 6 inch) from the net, and by the outer side and back boundaries. In doubles, the service court is also marked by a long service line, which is 0.76 metres (2 ft 6 inch) from the back boundary.

The net is 1.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) high at the edges and 1.524 metres (5 ft) high in the centre. The net posts are placed over the doubles sidelines, even when singles is played.

The minimum height for the ceiling above the court is not mentioned in the Laws of Badminton. Nonetheless, a badminton court will not be suitable if the ceiling is likely to be hit on a high serve.



1. The current scoring system in badminton is the 3 × 21 rally point scoring system. This means that three games are played to 21 points each, with a required two point difference between scores (meaning scores can go above 21, to a maximum of 30).

2. No point is earned when a player commits a fault.
3. A good serve must go directly into the receiver’s box.
4. In single, the court is long and narrow while in doubles it’s short and wide.

A. Neither side shall cause undue delay to the delivery of the service once the server and the receiver are ready for the service.
B. The server and the receiver shall stand within diagonally opposite service courts without touching the boundary lines of these service courts.
C. Some part of both feet of the server and the receiver shall remain in contact with the surface of the court in a stationary position from the start of the service until the service is delivered.
D. The server’s racket shall initially hit the base of the shuttle.
E. The whole shuttle shall be below the server’s waist at the instant of being hit by the server’s racket.
F. The waist shall be considered to be an imaginary line round the body, level with the lowest part of the server’s bottom rib.
G. The shaft of the server’s racket at the instant of hitting the shuttle shall be pointing in a downward direction.
H. The movement of the server’s racket shall continue forwards from the start of the service until the service is delivered.
I. The flight of the shuttle shall be upwards from the server’s racket to pass over the net so that, if not intercepted, it shall land in the receiver’s service court.
J. In attempting to serve, the server shall not miss the shuttle.
K. Once the players are ready for the service, the first forward movement of the server’s racket head shall be the start of the service.
L. The server shall not serve before the receiver is ready. However, the receiver shall be considered to have been ready if a return of the service is attempted.
M. In doubles, during the delivery of service, the partners may take up any positions within their respective courts, which do not unsighted the opposing server or receiver.
1. If in play, the shuttle lands outside the boundary of the court, passes through or under the net, 1touches the ceiling or side walls, touches the dress of a player.
 2. If in play, a player invades an opponent’s court over the net with the racket or person except such as an opponent is obstructed or distracted.
3. If in play, the shuttle is caught and hold on the racket during the execution of a stroke.
4. During play, the shuttle is hit twice in succession by the same player with two strokes.
5.When the shuttle is caught on the net and remains suspended on top, or on service, passing over the net, is caught in the net.
6. During service, the server accidentally touches the service line or any line boundary.
7. The server’s racket did not hit initially the base of the shuttle.
8. During the service, the server serves and hitting the shuttle above his waist line.
9. As the server hits the shuttle the racket’s head is obviously not lower than the handle.
1.The  server serves before the receiver is ready.
2. During the service, the server and receiver are both faulted.
3. A line judge is unsighted and the umpire is unable to make decision.
4. During play, the shuttle disintegrates and the base completely separates from the rest of the
5. When the game is interrupted by the outside factor like the sunlight, wind or a shuttlecock landed in your court from other court.
6. It is interrupted by correction of an error in playing  order or ends.


The music of Thailand reflects its geographic position at the intersection of China and India, and reflects trade routes that have historically included Persia, Africa, Greece and Rome. Thai musical instruments are varied and reflect ancient influence from far afield – including the klong thap and khim (Persian origin), the jakhe (Indian origin), the klong jin (Chinese origin), and the klong kaek (Indonesian origin). Though Thailand was never colonized by colonial powers, pop music and other forms of modern Asian, European and American music have become extremely influential. The two most popular styles of traditional Thai music are luk thung and mor lam; the latter in particular has close affinities with the Music of Laos.
Khon (Thai:) is a genre of dance drama from Thailand. It is traditionally performed solely in the royal court, by men in masks accompanied by narrators and a traditional piphat ensemble. A variation of this genre with female performers is called khon phu ying
A piphat (Thai: pronounced is a kind of ensemble in the classical music of Thailand, which features wind and percussion instruments. It is considered the primary form of ensemble for the interpretation of the most sacred and “high-class” compositions of the Thai classical repertoire.
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic, The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata.[2] It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
Thai Instruments are classified according to a system which is said to be “borrowed” from India. These categories are based on how the sounds are produced. These are ditt, sii, tii, and paw.
Glawng That
Almost all the Thai percussion instruments utilizing stretched hide leather or skin are referred to by a generic name. Glawng means drum. The drum which the Thai devised in former times were of the type with two heads stretched tightly and fastened down with pegs or nails.
The drum which has been used with the piphat (percussion) ensemble from earliest times is called glawng that. Originally only one drum was used with the piphat ensemble, but during the reign of King Rama II (1809-1824), another was added. One drum has a relatively high tone and is call male. The other drum gives a relatively low tone and is called female.
Ta Phon
In the old books, there is mention of an instrument called saphon which is probably similar to or the same instrument as the ta phon. In India this type of drum is played held on the lap or suspended from straps over the shoulders when played while standing. As for the Thai drum, it is put on a stand and played on both heads with the palms of the hand and the fingers. The ta phon is one of the rhythm instruments used in the pi phat ensemble.
It is believed that the jakhae is a further development of the earlier phin instrument. It is made to be played sitting horizontally on the floor or ground. The player sits on the floor or ground also. In order to make it seem more natural in this position, in the old days the case or body of the instrument was made in the shape of a crocodile and the front part carved to represent the crocodile’s jaws. However, the body was also made hollow to serve as a resonance chamber. The word for crocodile in Thai is jaw-ra-khae, which was gradually shortened jakhae after it became the name of the instrument
The Krajappii is actually a four-stringed phin. The resonance chamber or sound box is made flat, somewhat like the body of a guitar, and slightly oval in shape. The body is 2 3/4″ deep, 17 1/2″ long and 16″ wide. Extending above the body is a long, tapering neck, the end of which is flat and curves backward away from the strings. This neck is 55″ long; the neck and the body together measure 6″ in the length.
The saw sam sai also spelled saw samsai, and occasionally called simply sam sai; literally “three stringed fiddle”) is a traditional bowed string instrument of Thailand. Its body is made from a special type of coconut covered on one end with animal skin, and it has three silk strings. Typically, the player glues a jewel onto the skin before playing, to reduce the skin’s resonance.
The saw u is a Thai bowed string instrument. It has a lower pitch than the saw duang and is the lowest sounding of the saw family. It has two strings and can produce 8 notes.
The sound box is made from a coconut shell that is covered on the open front by cowskin. The saw u is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. The bow is between the strings and the player tilts the bow to play each string. The bridge nowadays is usually made of rolled cardboard paper. The saw u is a very fragile instrument. The morn (pillow) that rests at the bottom is extremely sensitive and drifts over time, causing changes in tone.
The saw duang is a bowed string instrument used in traditional Thai music. it has a higher pitch than a saw u. It has a hardwood soundbox covered on the playing end with python skin. It is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. Like the saw u, the bow is between the strings so the player has to tilt the bow to switch strings.
The ranat ek is a Thai xylophone. It has 21 or 22 wooden bars suspended by cords over a boat-shaped trough resonator, and is played with two mallets. It is used as a leading instrument in the piphat ensemble.
The ranat ek is played by two types of mallets. The hard mallets create the sharp bright sound when they keys are hit.The hard mallets are used for more faster playing. The soft mallets create a mellow and more softer tone which is used for slower songs.
The ranat thum is a low pitched xylophone used in the music of Thailand. It has 18 wooden keys, which are stretched over a boat-shaped trough resonator. Its shape looks like a ranat ek, but it is lower and wider. It is usually played in accompaniment of a ranat ek.
The ranat ek lek is a metallophone used in the classical music of Thailand. It is the smaller of the two sizes of Thai metallophone; the larger one is called ranat thum lek.
The ranat ek lek consists of flat metal slabs placed over a rectangular wooden resonator. It is played with two bamboo sticks with padded ends.
The khong wong lek is a gong circle used in Thai classical music. It has 18 tuned bossed gongs, and is smaller and higher in pitch than the khong wong yai. Both instruments are played in the same manner, the khong wong lek plays a faster and more ornate variation on the principal melody, with less use of two-note chords. Each gong in tuned with beeswax under the gongs.
Chap – is a percussion instrument. It is made from metal as is a Ching but is thinner. There are two kinds of Chap, Chap lek and Chap yai. Chap lek’s diameter is 12-14 cm. Chap yai’s diameter is 24-26 cm. When played a Chap sounds like “chap”. Chaps have two sounds. One sound is chap, another is chaeng.
Pi –  is the generic term for any of a variety of quadruple reed oboes used in the traditional music of Thailand. It is very similar in construction and playing technique to the Cambodian sralai


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