widespread Christianization of the inhabitants.
In Gothic period, (about 1150-1400 A.D.) churches and building became increasingly larger, higher, and wider-until one collapsed. Gothic Architecture added some new ideas; flying buttresses
decorative outsides, pointed arches, and various technical improvements.
Gothic architects constructed huge buildings with large spaces inside for worship. Great stained windows were designed. These structures are still use in European cities. Notre Dame
in Paris, Westminster Abbey in London, and the Cathedral of Milan,
NOTRE DAME, PARIS WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON
Cologne, Florence, and Chartes. Gothic public buildings like halls of Brussels, the city hall of Munich and Siena, Italy and the Doges Palace in Venice.
The term Byzantine refers to the eastern branch of the Roman empire which existed from the founding of Constantinople by the Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D.
The Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) was the name
of the Greek part of the Roman Empire which survived into the Middle Ages. Its capital was Constantinople, which today is in Turkey, and is now called Istanbul.
The classical and Asian artistic tradition merge in Byzantine art. This is the Asian two-dimensional or flat style, placing emphasis on clarity of line and sharpness of outline, As in Near Eastern(Persian) and Far Eastern(Chinese and Japanese) art. On the other hand, there is the Western 3-dimensional style of the classical tradition The icon portraying Christ, the crucifixion, or Mary as the Mother of Christ are examples of Byzantine artistic representation. These are the portable ivory carvings or wood panel paintings, often luxuriously ornamental with precious stones and gold background a symbol of divinity and perfection.A Byzantine icon which are most Lady of Perpetual Help. In Italy centers of Byzantine art were Ravenna EXAMPLES OF ICONS
The Byzantine capitals are ornamental and abstract with a typical basketweave design. The walls are ornamented with mosaics of colored marble which give them a translucent and
(6th century), Rome, Venice and Sienna. glowing quality that creates an awesome, mystical effect. The aim of the Byzantine artist and architect was to create a reflection of the
splendor of heaven.
In contrast to the Roman love of luxury and worldly pleasures, as well as their thirst of power, Christianity introduced a new sense of values, laying emphasis on the spiritual and eternal life.
“Halos.” But the early Christian architecture was developed only at the end of
the era of Christian persecution.
RULES OF THE GAME IN TABLE TENNIS:
The objectives of the game is to hit the ball with the racket or paddle held in the hand over the net. The ball must strike on the server’s side of the court before striking the top of the table on the opponent’s court. Whoever commits mistake looses point and your opponent gains a point. A player or pair first scoring 21 points is the winner of the game. The table tennis is also known as whiff-whaff, flim flam, and gossima.
The game originated in England during the 1880s, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that the game was first developed by British military officers in India or South Africa who brought it back with them. A row of books were stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball from one end of the table to the other. Alternatively table tennis was played with paddles made of cigar box lids and balls made of champagne corks. The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell equipment commercially. Early rackets were often pieces of parchment stretched upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of “wiff-waff” and “ping-pong”. A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley’s of Regent Street under the name “Gossima”. The name “ping-pong” was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. The name “ping-pong” then came to be used for the game played by the rather expensive Jaques’s equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the “ping-pong” name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers then enforced their trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to “table tennis” instead of the more common, but trademarked, term.
The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30 cm. The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matt, divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. The ITTF approves only wooden tables or their derivates. Concrete tables with a steel net are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.
a. Fails to Make a good service.
b. Fails to make a good return.
c. If he volleys or obstructs the ball.
d. If the ball touches his court twice successively.
f. If he strikes the ball with the side of the racket blade.
g. If while serving, he or his partner stamps his foot.
i. If his free hand touches the playing surface while the ball is in play.
C. It is interrupted by correction of an error in playing order or ends.
sunlight and ball crosses from the other table.
Badminton is one of the best recreational sports nowadays. It is very economical and can be played by people of all ages and varying skills and levels. It enjoyable game for beginners but at the same time, can be an exciting game that requires stamina, speed, cleverness, and agility. In playing badminton, game officials are needed to be in full control of the match. Good officiating brings out the best in the playing ability of each player, while poor officiating can easily ruin the game.
Playing court dimensions
The court is rectangular and divided into halves by a net. Courts are usually marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only. The doubles court is wider than the singles court, but both are of same length. The exception, which often causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension.
The full width of the court is 6.1 metres (20 ft), and in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres (17 ft). The full length of the court is 13.4 metres (44 ft). The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres (6 ft 6 inch) from the net, and by the outer side and back boundaries. In doubles, the service court is also marked by a long service line, which is 0.76 metres (2 ft 6 inch) from the back boundary.
The net is 1.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) high at the edges and 1.524 metres (5 ft) high in the centre. The net posts are placed over the doubles sidelines, even when singles is played.
The minimum height for the ceiling above the court is not mentioned in the Laws of Badminton. Nonetheless, a badminton court will not be suitable if the ceiling is likely to be hit on a high serve.
GAME RULES AND SCORING
1. The current scoring system in badminton is the 3 × 21 rally point scoring system. This means that three games are played to 21 points each, with a required two point difference between scores (meaning scores can go above 21, to a maximum of 30).
2. No point is earned when a player commits a fault.
3. A good serve must go directly into the receiver’s box.
4. In single, the court is long and narrow while in doubles it’s short and wide.
2. During the service, the server and receiver are both faulted.
The music of Thailand reflects its geographic position at the intersection of China and India, and reflects trade routes that have historically included Persia, Africa, Greece and Rome. Thai musical instruments are varied and reflect ancient influence from far afield – including the klong thap and khim (Persian origin), the jakhe (Indian origin), the klong jin (Chinese origin), and the klong kaek (Indonesian origin). Though Thailand was never colonized by colonial powers, pop music and other forms of modern Asian, European and American music have become extremely influential. The two most popular styles of traditional Thai music are luk thung and mor lam; the latter in particular has close affinities with the Music of Laos.
Khon (Thai:) is a genre of dance drama from Thailand. It is traditionally performed solely in the royal court, by men in masks accompanied by narrators and a traditional piphat ensemble. A variation of this genre with female performers is called khon phu ying
A piphat (Thai: pronounced is a kind of ensemble in the classical music of Thailand, which features wind and percussion instruments. It is considered the primary form of ensemble for the interpretation of the most sacred and “high-class” compositions of the Thai classical repertoire.
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic, The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
Thai Instruments are classified according to a system which is said to be “borrowed” from India. These categories are based on how the sounds are produced. These are ditt, sii, tii, and paw.
Almost all the Thai percussion instruments utilizing stretched hide leather or skin are referred to by a generic name. Glawng means drum. The drum which the Thai devised in former times were of the type with two heads stretched tightly and fastened down with pegs or nails.
The drum which has been used with the piphat (percussion) ensemble from earliest times is called glawng that. Originally only one drum was used with the piphat ensemble, but during the reign of King Rama II (1809-1824), another was added. One drum has a relatively high tone and is call male. The other drum gives a relatively low tone and is called female.
In the old books, there is mention of an instrument called saphon which is probably similar to or the same instrument as the ta phon. In India this type of drum is played held on the lap or suspended from straps over the shoulders when played while standing. As for the Thai drum, it is put on a stand and played on both heads with the palms of the hand and the fingers. The ta phon is one of the rhythm instruments used in the pi phat ensemble.
It is believed that the jakhae is a further development of the earlier phin instrument. It is made to be played sitting horizontally on the floor or ground. The player sits on the floor or ground also. In order to make it seem more natural in this position, in the old days the case or body of the instrument was made in the shape of a crocodile and the front part carved to represent the crocodile’s jaws. However, the body was also made hollow to serve as a resonance chamber. The word for crocodile in Thai is jaw-ra-khae, which was gradually shortened jakhae after it became the name of the instrument
The Krajappii is actually a four-stringed phin. The resonance chamber or sound box is made flat, somewhat like the body of a guitar, and slightly oval in shape. The body is 2 3/4″ deep, 17 1/2″ long and 16″ wide. Extending above the body is a long, tapering neck, the end of which is flat and curves backward away from the strings. This neck is 55″ long; the neck and the body together measure 6″ in the length.
The saw sam sai also spelled saw samsai, and occasionally called simply sam sai; literally “three stringed fiddle”) is a traditional bowed string instrument of Thailand. Its body is made from a special type of coconut covered on one end with animal skin, and it has three silk strings. Typically, the player glues a jewel onto the skin before playing, to reduce the skin’s resonance.
The saw u is a Thai bowed string instrument. It has a lower pitch than the saw duang and is the lowest sounding of the saw family. It has two strings and can produce 8 notes.
The sound box is made from a coconut shell that is covered on the open front by cowskin. The saw u is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. The bow is between the strings and the player tilts the bow to play each string. The bridge nowadays is usually made of rolled cardboard paper. The saw u is a very fragile instrument. The morn (pillow) that rests at the bottom is extremely sensitive and drifts over time, causing changes in tone.
The saw duang is a bowed string instrument used in traditional Thai music. it has a higher pitch than a saw u. It has a hardwood soundbox covered on the playing end with python skin. It is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. Like the saw u, the bow is between the strings so the player has to tilt the bow to switch strings.
The ranat ek is a Thai xylophone. It has 21 or 22 wooden bars suspended by cords over a boat-shaped trough resonator, and is played with two mallets. It is used as a leading instrument in the piphat ensemble.
The ranat ek is played by two types of mallets. The hard mallets create the sharp bright sound when they keys are hit.The hard mallets are used for more faster playing. The soft mallets create a mellow and more softer tone which is used for slower songs.
The ranat thum is a low pitched xylophone used in the music of Thailand. It has 18 wooden keys, which are stretched over a boat-shaped trough resonator. Its shape looks like a ranat ek, but it is lower and wider. It is usually played in accompaniment of a ranat ek.
The ranat ek lek is a metallophone used in the classical music of Thailand. It is the smaller of the two sizes of Thai metallophone; the larger one is called ranat thum lek.
The ranat ek lek consists of flat metal slabs placed over a rectangular wooden resonator. It is played with two bamboo sticks with padded ends.
The khong wong lek is a gong circle used in Thai classical music. It has 18 tuned bossed gongs, and is smaller and higher in pitch than the khong wong yai. Both instruments are played in the same manner, the khong wong lek plays a faster and more ornate variation on the principal melody, with less use of two-note chords. Each gong in tuned with beeswax under the gongs.
Chap – is a percussion instrument. It is made from metal as is a Ching but is thinner. There are two kinds of Chap, Chap lek and Chap yai. Chap lek’s diameter is 12-14 cm. Chap yai’s diameter is 24-26 cm. When played a Chap sounds like “chap”. Chaps have two sounds. One sound is chap, another is chaeng.
Pi – is the generic term for any of a variety of quadruple reed oboes used in the traditional music of Thailand. It is very similar in construction and playing technique to the Cambodian sralai