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Solomon Saprid

  • Colonizers have come and gone to our land and inputted different traditions in our very rich culture. There’s this one man who sought to preserve our culture through his paintings and sculptures and he is none other than Solomon SapridHe gave the public pictures of Philippine folklore characters that made the Filipinos realized that these imaginary beings are not just a mere myth, rather it is more of a reality. He sculpted “Tikbalang”, a titanic creature with a horse-like head but has a human-like body. The tikbalang is a monster in Philippine Mythology commonly described as a tall, bony, humanoid creature with disproportionately long limbs, such that its knees tower over its head when it squats down. It has the head and sometimes the feet of an animal, most commonly a horse. It has been compared to the half-man, half-horse centaur from Greek mythology.
  •                  tikbalang
  • He also sculpted “Amihan”, the wind goddess. After sometime, these images had been so engraved in the public’s mind that the public began to think that these creatures could be anywhere. He also sculpted the “Gomburza” along Intramuros that made the public remember the things that the 3 priests have done for our country. 
  • amihan
  • He didn’t just paint or sculpt art that only talked about the Filipino myths, but he also made pictures that touched our culture. He painted “Mag-ina” that exemplified the joys of parenthood. He was able to pull back the Filipinos to their roots and made them understand their culture and beginnings. Indeed, he is an artist who enriched the rich culture of a society.
  • Artist:AngKiuko
    Painting:The Crucifixion
  • When a painter paints, his emotions are shown through the painted canvas. It shows the different realities about life that move its audience. One person was able to do this through his paintings, and he is the legendary AngKiuko. His early paintings were full of different emotions that influenced the viewers’ feelings. His audience could easily understand the message of his paintings because he used passion.
  • He drew the Crucifixion of Christ that exhibited hopelessness and depression. His favorite subjects for his paintings were angst and anger that are shown in his paintings called “Payaso” and “Ina at Anak”. 

  • His paintings were full of irony and questions. After some years, he tried to re-create his style in art by painting gleeful pictures of Mother Nature instead of painting pictures of quarreling crowds. Indeed, he made a very remarkable impact in our society. He re-created his art and thus, he has been able to influence the public’s views about life.
  •  Artist: Napoleon V. Abueva
    Sculpture: Allegorical Harpoon
  • The Philippines is very fortunate for having the multi awarded national artist, Napoleon V. Abueva, as its father of modern Philippine sculpture. Abuevais the pioneer in modern  sculptures because he was the first artist who had creatively and successfully moved out of the classic styleto create his own abstract experimental modern art pieces and paved the way for other young aspirants to follow his lead.
  • He was the only sculptor who is capable on working on all kinds of material in several styles from representational to abstract. There is not one drop of classical style in all if his masterpieces. Abueva has long been exposed in utilizing almost all kinds of materials.
  • These materials include wood, adobe, metal, stainless steel, cement, marble, bronze, iron, alabaster, coral, brass, molave, acacia, langka wood, ipil, kamagong, palm wood and bamboo. One of his most famous works is his wooden sculpture entitled “Allegorical Harpoon” which is currently housed in the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
  •  Artsist:FernandoCuetoAmorsolo
    Painting: “Portrait of Presidents: Manuel Quezon, Manuel
    and Sergio Osmena
  • Dubbed as the grand old man of the Philippine art scene, Fernando Amorsolo, has made the largest and solidest contribution to the Philippines through his numerous paintings scattered around the Philippines and through his discovery of the natural light in canvas.
  • Fernando Amorsolo has done many portraits that include past Philippine presidents Manuel L. Quezon, Manuel Roxas and Sergio Osmena Sr. Most of his works depict the beauty and the splendor of our society during the late 1800’s until the 1950’s.
  • Artist: Hernando Ocampo
    Painting: The Contrast
  • Hernando Ocampo’s masterpieces had large contribution to full understanding and awareness of social realities in the Philippines. He made paintings reflecting economic and psychological dislocation in the country brought by World War II, a time of widespread poverty, hunger, and misery.
  • His works also depicted objection against the disparity between rich and poor. One vivid illustration portraying the objection in social inequality is his painting, The Contrast, which pictures a beggar eating in front of a mansion.
  • ocampo
  • hernando ocampo
  • hernando ocm
  • Artist: VictorioEdades
    Painting: The Builders
  • VictorioEdades, Father of Modern Philippine Painting, created works which were dark in color and gave pictures of Filipino masses as theme. One of his great works depicting Filipino masses is The Builders, the most controversial painting. It is dark in color and made of heavy texture which pictures men working in a quarry. 
  • Moreover, his works were very different from Amorsolo’s bright, sunny, cheerful hues yet his creativity in art made way for mural and modern paintings to be known in the Philippines. He does not only establish modern paintings into the Philippines but also link this modernism to the issue of national identity. 
  • Some of his masterpieces were The Artist and the Model, Portrait of the Professor, Japanese Girl, Mother and Daughter, The Wrestlers, Poinsettia Girl, The Sketch.
  • Victorio_Edades_-_The_Sketch
  • edades
  • Artist: Diosdado Lorenzo
    Painting: Still Life Paintings
  • Diosdado Lorenzo is one of the most famous modernist painters in the Philippines. He is one of the pioneers who introduced the modern 20th century form of art which is stronger and more appealing to the eyes than those of the traditional paintings made by Fernando Amorsolo
  • To form the modernist approach in paintings, Lorenzo destroyed the old perspective of traditional paintings to make way for the new styles in painting. Lorenzo’s obsession with the country’s landscape and people enabled him to try different forms of paintings such as painting with lights, Chinese arts, watercolors, etc
  • Artist: Vicente Rivera
    Painting: Supplication
  • Vicente Rivera, a master in Philippine paintings, is commonly underrated due to the rarity of his works. During his early years in education, he received a silver medal after taking two head studies. He also received various nominations and awards in the field of painting. 
  • Unknown to everyone, he is one of the founders of U.P. School of Fine Arts. His famous work, Supplication, depicts a picture of a woman kneeling down on the nailed feet of Jesus on the cross. 
  • diosdado lorenzo vicente rivera
  • vicente rivera2
  • Artist: Juan Luna
  • The paintings of Juan Luna were the first Filipino works of art to become famous inside and outside of the Philippines because of its meaning and significance. Juan Luna produced works in the romantic and early impressionist styles, achieving great recognition in Europe. 
  • Juan Luna traveled to different parts of Europe, learning various techniques in painting and eventually coming back to the Philippines to further nurture his talents. He won great praise as wells as many prizes for his works. 
  • His achievements helped to inspire other Filipinos to think of themselves as equal to the Europeans. Juan Luna’s greatest masterpiece is “The Spoliarium”. This won him a gold medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts held in Madrid. 
  •  The Spoliarium depicts the 19th century horror experience of the Filipinos. It emphasized the violation of Human Rights by the colonizers of Spain. Juan Luna expressed his patriotism by painting one such masterpiece to enlighten the Filipinos out of oppression. 
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  • Artist: Guillermo Tolentino
    Sculpture: Oblation and The
    Bonifacio Monument
  • Guillermo E. Tolentino is a renowned artist known for transforming hopes and aspirations of freedom into art. One of his famous creations is the Oblation, which can be found at the lobby of College of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. The Oblation, famous landmark in the University of the Philippines, has become a symbol of academic freedom. 
  • It is a figure of anude man with arms outstretched and looking far beyond the horizon. The original Oblation is made of concrete and measures three and a half meters symbolizing the three and a half years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. The stones on which it stands represent the many islands in the country. 
  • In addition, Guillermo Tolentino included clusters of katakataka found at the foot of the figure, which symbolize the heroism of the Filipino people. The Oblation is good representation of how one has a thirst for freedom and an eagerness to offer his whole self for the country. He transformed the country’s aspiration and hope for a freer country into this amazing sculpture. 
  • Another famous sculpture of Guillermo Tolentino is the Bonifacio Monument located in Caloocan City. The monument commemorates the proletarian hero, Andres Bonifacio and his revolutionary group called “Katipunan” first encounter with the Spanish soldiers on August 3, 1896. The Bonifacio Monument is an enduring symbol of the Filipinos’ cry for freedom. oblation
  •                                       boifcio monument


Baroque Architecture

•Architecture prevailed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries and was characterized by elaborated forms of ornamentations. The composition of Baroque painting employs diagonal and zigzag lines that best express the vitality and movement quality of the Baroque art. Baroque style in architecture is marked by heavy sculptural and extravagantly ornamental façade. The giant twisted columns, broken pediments, scrolls, trellises, urns, and angels.
Baroque, sculpture generally used every conceivable type of ornamentation. The characters are generally religious figures. These are saints, angels, cherubs, animals, metal sunburst, with garlands of flowers, leaves, shells, and scrolls. These are usually painted in gold on wood or carved stones  The Baroque style, as an expression of religious emotionalism, eventually found its way into the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Central and South America.  And in East, Particularly in the Philippines, with the
widespread Christianization of the inhabitants.


In Gothic period, (about 1150-1400 A.D.) churches and building became increasingly larger, higher, and wider-until one collapsed. Gothic Architecture added some new ideas; flying buttresses
decorative outsides, pointed arches, and various technical improvements.

flying_buttresses  220px-FlyingButtresses


Gothic architects constructed huge buildings with large spaces inside for worship. Great stained windows were designed. These structures are still use in European cities. Notre Dame
in Paris, Westminster Abbey in London, and the Cathedral of Milan,NotreDameDeParis  West_Side_of_Westminster_Abbey,_London

NOTRE DAME, PARIS                                WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON

cathedral de Milan  CATHEDRAL OF MILAN

Cologne, Florence, and Chartes. Gothic public buildings like halls of Brussels, the city hall of Munich and Siena, Italy and the Doges Palace in Venice.

St_Mary_Redcliffe_adj_sky  COLOGNE, GERMANY

Il_Duomo_Florence_Italy  FLORENCE, ITALY

Belgium_Brussels hall   HALLS OF BRUSSELS, BELGIUM


The term Byzantine refers to the eastern branch of the Roman empire which existed from the founding of Constantinople by the Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D.

   The Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) was the name
of the Greek part of the Roman Empire which survived into the Middle Ages. Its capital was Constantinople, which today is in Turkey, and is now called Istanbul.


The classical and Asian artistic tradition merge in Byzantine art. This is the Asian two-dimensional or flat style, placing emphasis on clarity of line and sharpness of outline, As in Near Eastern(Persian) and Far Eastern(Chinese and Japanese) art. On the other hand, there is the Western 3-dimensional style of the classical tradition The icon portraying Christ, the crucifixion, or Mary as the Mother of Christ are examples of Byzantine artistic representation. These are the portable ivory carvings or wood panel paintings, often luxuriously ornamental with precious stones and gold background a symbol of divinity and perfection.A Byzantine icon which are most Lady of Perpetual Help. In Italy centers of Byzantine art were Ravennach25_100 handpainted_christ_200   EXAMPLES OF ICONS

The character of Byzantine architecture is by the novel development of the  dome cover polygonal and square plans for churches, tombs, and baptisteries.
300px-StSophiaChurch-Sofia-10     300px-SantApollininner

byzantine architecture   byzantine architecture

The Byzantine capitals are ornamental and abstract with a typical basketweave design. The walls are ornamented with mosaics of colored marble which give them a translucent and
(6th century), Rome, Venice and Sienna. glowing quality that creates an awesome, mystical effect. The aim of the Byzantine artist and architect was to create a reflection of the
splendor of heaven.


In contrast to the Roman love of luxury and worldly pleasures, as well as their thirst of power, Christianity introduced a new sense of values, laying emphasis on the spiritual and eternal life.

•Because of their worldly values, the early Christians invited misunderstanding and were persecuted by the Roman emperors. They had to live as fugitive, hiding under ground corridors  known as catacomb.
Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice.
                                      350px-A-Procession-in-the-Catacomb-of-Callistus CATACOMB
Here they were gathered for mass celebrated on tombs of the first martyrs of the church. Eventually the walls of catacomb were decorated with frescoes and beautiful , glowing mosaics, in honor of Christ, Mary and the converts own valiant comrades in persecution.
Fresco_within_the_of_Church_of_St_Nicholas_in_Mala_Strana_in_Prague     450px-Mariae_Verkuendigung_Fuchstal_Fresko_Magnifikat_1
Ferapontov    Sistine_jonah
Symbols took precedence over the presentation of God, Christ and Saints. The symbols served as a kind of religious code which enable the Christians to identify themselves. The prevalent Christian symbols were the cross, the fish, the lamb. The Greek letters Chi-Rho, Alpha and Omega. Triumphant wreaths, grapes, doves, and peacock.
133px-Simple_Labarum2_svg     CHIORHO     200px-Alpha-omega ALPHA OMEGA
220px-Harvest_Wreath    Labarum
Later, the artists portrayed Christ and the saints with
“Halos.” But the early Christian architecture was developed only at the end of
the era of Christian persecution.
The first known Christian church is the old Basilica of St. Peter in Rome, dedicated in 326 A.D. by Emperor Constantine.
  220px-Constantine_Chiaramonti_Inv1749    800px-Basilica_di_San_Pietro_1450
This early building for worship gave rise to the Basilica type, which became the basic structure for later churches. Its plan is longitudinal and oriented east and west.
Giovanni_Paolo_Panini_-_Interior_of_St__Peter's,_Rome  280px-Petersdom_von_Engelsburg_gesehen
220px-Christ_Hagia_Sofia          220px-Peter_in_Chora


The objectives of the game is to hit the ball with the racket or paddle held in the hand over the net. The ball must strike on the server’s side of the court before striking the top of the table on the opponent’s court. Whoever commits mistake looses point and your opponent gains a point. A player or pair first scoring 21 points is the winner of the game. The table tennis is also known as whiff-whaff, flim flam, and gossima.

The game originated in England during the 1880s, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that the game was first developed by British military officers in India or South Africa who brought it back with them. A row of books were stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball from one end of the table to the other. Alternatively table tennis was played with paddles made of cigar box lids and balls made of champagne corks. The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell equipment commercially. Early rackets were often pieces of parchment stretched upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of “wiff-waff” and “ping-pong”. A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley’s of Regent Street under the name “Gossima”. The name “ping-pong” was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. The name “ping-pong” then came to be used for the game played by the rather expensive Jaques’s equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the “ping-pong” name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers then enforced their trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to “table tennis” instead of the more common, but trademarked, term.


Diagram of a table tennis table showing the official dimensions

The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30 cm. The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matt, divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. The ITTF approves only wooden tables or their derivates. Concrete tables with a steel net are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.


•Service shall start with the ball resting on the open palm of the server’s stationary free hand.
•The server shall then project the ball near vertically upwards, without imparting spin, so that it rises at least 16 cm after leaving the palm.
•As the ball is falling, the server shall strike it so that it touches first his court and then, after passing over or around the net assembly, touches directly the receiver’s court, in doubles, the ball shall touch successively the right half court of server and receiver.
It is a fault if a player:
a. Fails to Make a good service.
b. Fails to make a good return.
c. If he volleys or obstructs the ball.
d. If the ball touches his court twice successively.
e. If he strikes the ball successively.
f. If he strikes the ball with the side of the racket  blade.
g. If while serving, he or his partner stamps his foot.
h. If he or anything he wears or carries, moves the playing surface while the ball is in play.
i. If his free hand touches the playing surface while the ball is in play.
 j. If he or anything he wears or carries, touches the net or its supports while the ball is in play.
k. If in doubles, he strikes the ball out of sequence.
A.The ball served, in passing over or around the net, touches it or its supports provided the
     service is good or volleyed by the receiver or his partner.
B. The server serves the ball and the receiver is not ready.
C. It is interrupted by correction of an error in playing order or ends.
D. It is interrupted for warning a player for a service doubtful correctness or that he has failed
     to notify a change of racket.
E. The condition of the play are disturbed by outside factors like the direction of the wind,
sunlight and ball crosses from the other table.
Definition of Terms:
•A rally is the period during which the ball is in play.
•The ball is in play from the last moment at which it is stationary on the palm of the free hand  before being intentionally projected in service until the rally is decided as a let or a point.
•A let is a rally of which the result is not scored.
•A point is a rally of which the result is scored.
•The racket hand is the hand carrying the racket.
•The free hand is the hand not carrying the racket; the free arm is the arm of the free hand.
•A player strikes the ball if he touches it in play with his racket.
•A player obstruct the ball if he, or anything he wears or carries touches it in play when it is above or travelling towards the playing surface.
•The server is the player due to strike the ball first in a rally.
•The receiver is the player due to strike the ball second in a rally.
•The umpire is the person appointed to control the match.
•The assistant umpire is the appointed person to assist the umpire with certain decision.
•Anything that a player wears or carries at the start of the rally •post.
•The ball shall regard as passing over or around the net assembly if it passes anywhere other than between the  net and the net.
•The end line shall be regarded as extending definitely in both directions.

Officiating Badminton

Badminton is one of the best recreational sports nowadays. It is very economical and can be played by people of all ages and varying skills and levels. It  enjoyable game for beginners but at the same time, can be an exciting game that requires stamina, speed, cleverness, and agility. In playing badminton, game officials are needed to be in full control of the match. Good officiating brings out the best in the playing ability of each player, while poor officiating can easily ruin the game.

Playing court dimensions[edit]

Badminton court, isometric view

The court is rectangular and divided into halves by a net. Courts are usually marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only.[10] The doubles court is wider than the singles court, but both are of same length. The exception, which often causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension.

The full width of the court is 6.1 metres (20 ft), and in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres (17 ft). The full length of the court is 13.4 metres (44 ft). The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres (6 ft 6 inch) from the net, and by the outer side and back boundaries. In doubles, the service court is also marked by a long service line, which is 0.76 metres (2 ft 6 inch) from the back boundary.

The net is 1.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) high at the edges and 1.524 metres (5 ft) high in the centre. The net posts are placed over the doubles sidelines, even when singles is played.

The minimum height for the ceiling above the court is not mentioned in the Laws of Badminton. Nonetheless, a badminton court will not be suitable if the ceiling is likely to be hit on a high serve.



1. The current scoring system in badminton is the 3 × 21 rally point scoring system. This means that three games are played to 21 points each, with a required two point difference between scores (meaning scores can go above 21, to a maximum of 30).

2. No point is earned when a player commits a fault.
3. A good serve must go directly into the receiver’s box.
4. In single, the court is long and narrow while in doubles it’s short and wide.

A. Neither side shall cause undue delay to the delivery of the service once the server and the receiver are ready for the service.
B. The server and the receiver shall stand within diagonally opposite service courts without touching the boundary lines of these service courts.
C. Some part of both feet of the server and the receiver shall remain in contact with the surface of the court in a stationary position from the start of the service until the service is delivered.
D. The server’s racket shall initially hit the base of the shuttle.
E. The whole shuttle shall be below the server’s waist at the instant of being hit by the server’s racket.
F. The waist shall be considered to be an imaginary line round the body, level with the lowest part of the server’s bottom rib.
G. The shaft of the server’s racket at the instant of hitting the shuttle shall be pointing in a downward direction.
H. The movement of the server’s racket shall continue forwards from the start of the service until the service is delivered.
I. The flight of the shuttle shall be upwards from the server’s racket to pass over the net so that, if not intercepted, it shall land in the receiver’s service court.
J. In attempting to serve, the server shall not miss the shuttle.
K. Once the players are ready for the service, the first forward movement of the server’s racket head shall be the start of the service.
L. The server shall not serve before the receiver is ready. However, the receiver shall be considered to have been ready if a return of the service is attempted.
M. In doubles, during the delivery of service, the partners may take up any positions within their respective courts, which do not unsighted the opposing server or receiver.
1. If in play, the shuttle lands outside the boundary of the court, passes through or under the net, 1touches the ceiling or side walls, touches the dress of a player.
 2. If in play, a player invades an opponent’s court over the net with the racket or person except such as an opponent is obstructed or distracted.
3. If in play, the shuttle is caught and hold on the racket during the execution of a stroke.
4. During play, the shuttle is hit twice in succession by the same player with two strokes.
5.When the shuttle is caught on the net and remains suspended on top, or on service, passing over the net, is caught in the net.
6. During service, the server accidentally touches the service line or any line boundary.
7. The server’s racket did not hit initially the base of the shuttle.
8. During the service, the server serves and hitting the shuttle above his waist line.
9. As the server hits the shuttle the racket’s head is obviously not lower than the handle.
1.The  server serves before the receiver is ready.
2. During the service, the server and receiver are both faulted.
3. A line judge is unsighted and the umpire is unable to make decision.
4. During play, the shuttle disintegrates and the base completely separates from the rest of the
5. When the game is interrupted by the outside factor like the sunlight, wind or a shuttlecock landed in your court from other court.
6. It is interrupted by correction of an error in playing  order or ends.

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