The triceps surae “three-headed [muscle] of the calf”) is a pair ofmuscles located at the calf – the two-headed gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into thecalcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the posterior leg, commonly known as the calf muscle.
- The triceps surae is connected to the foot through the Achilles tendon, and has 3 heads deriving from the 2 major masses of muscle.
- The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femurdirectly above the knee.
- The deep (profundis) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia.
The pectoralis major (from Latin: pectus, breast) is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breastin the female. Underneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle. In sports as well as bodybuilding, the pectoral muscles may colloquially be referred to as “pecs“.
Trapezius is either one of two large superficial muscles that extend longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade). Its functions are to move the scapulae and support the arm.
Hamstring is any of the three tendons contracted
by three posterior thigh muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris), and the term is often also used to refer to the muscles themselves. The hamstring tendons make up the borders of the space behind the knee; the muscles are involved in knee flexion and hip extension.
When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone, muscle, tendon and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, increased metabolism, increased fitness, improved cardiac function, and improved lipoprotein lipid profiles, including elevated HDL (“good”) cholesterol.
Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman, Highland games, shotput, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably American football, wrestling, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, poledancing (or polefitness), hockey and football.
MAJOR MUSCLE GROUP IN STRENGTHENING TRAINING:
- Quadriceps(front of thighs)
- Hamstrings(back of thighs)
- Latsand trapezius (back)
- Biceps(front of arms)
- Triceps(back of arms)
- Abdomen and obliques(belly)
- Lower back
Quadriceps femoris muscle
is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur.
It is subdivided into four separate portions or ‘heads’, which have received distinctive names:
- Rectus femorisoccupies the middle of the thigh, covering most of the other three quadriceps muscles. It originates on the ilium. It is named from its straight course.
- The other three lie deep to rectus femoris and originate from the body of thefemur, which they cover from thetrochanters to the condyles:
- Vastus lateralisis on the lateral side of the femur (i.e. on the outer side of the thigh).
- Vastus medialisis on the medial side of the femur (i.e. on the inner part thigh).
- Vastus intermediuslies between vastus lateralis and vastus medialis on the front of the femur (i.e. on the top or front of the thigh), but deep to the rectus femoris. Typically, it cannot be seen without dissection of the rectus femoris.
All four parts of the quadriceps muscle ultimately insert into the tibial tuberosity of the tibia. This is via the patella, where the quadriceps tendon becomes the patellar ligament, which then attaches to the tibia.
CORE SUBJECT DESCRIPTION:
Physical Education and Health offers experiential learning for learners to adopt an active life for fitness and lifelong health. The knowledge, skills and understanding include physical and health literacy competencies support them in accessing, synthesizing and evaluating information, making informed decisions, enhancing and advocating their own as wells as other’s fitness and health.
CONTENT OF HOPE 3
- TRADITIONAL (FOLK AND ETHNIC)
- MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY
- BALLROOM (RECREATIONAL AND COMPETETIVE)
- CHEER DANCE
- HIP-HOP/STREET DANCE
- FESTIVAL DANCE
- TRADITIONAL (FOLK DANCE)
- A dance performed at social functions by people with little or no professional training, often to traditionally based music, generally designed for public performance or the stage, execution dominated by an inherited tradition rather than innovation. New dancers learn informally by observing others.
- EXAMPLES OF FOLK DANCE:
- ØSALAKOT DANCE
Improving Your Eating Habits:
REFLECT on all of your specific eating habits, both bad and good; and, your common triggers for unhealthy eating.
REPLACE your unhealthy eating habits with healthier ones.
REINFORCE your new, healthier eating habits.
Taking on new, healthier habits may mean that you:
1. Drink skim or low-fat (1%) milk instead of 2% or whole milk.
2. Eat fruit for dessert instead of cookies (or skip dessert all together).
3. Schedule times to eat your meals and snacks.
4. Plan and prepare healthy meals and snacks to increase your chance of success.
5. Keep healthy snacks at work. Pack healthy lunches that you make at home.
6. Pay attention to your feelings of hunger. Learn the difference between physical hunger and habitual eating. 7. Put down your fork between bites.
8. Wait until you have swallowed your mouthful of food before taking the next bite.
9. Eating when you are feel worried, tense, or bored also leads to overeating.
10. Give your body and your brain time to relax from the stress of daily life. Take a mental or physical break to help you feel better without turning to food as a reward
11. Replace your candy dish with a bowl of fruit or nuts.
12. When you do have unhealthy foods in your house, put them in a place that is hard for you to reach
Differentiates Types of Eating:
- Fueling for performance
- Emotional Eating
- Social eating
- Eating while watching TV or sports event
- Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness.It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor(fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. Practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises.
- A Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. A well-balanced aerobics class will have five components: warm-up (5-10 minutes), cardio vascular conditioning (25-30 minutes), muscular strength and conditioning (10-15 minutes), cool-down (5-8 minutes) and stretching and flexibility (5-8 minutes).
- Physical Exercise –
- is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitnessand overall healthand wellness.
- It is performed for strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and merely enjoyment, exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent the “diseases of affluence” such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
- It may also help prevent depression, help to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health generally, and can augment an individual’s sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem.
- CLASSIFICATION OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES
- Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes your body to use more oxygen than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance. Examples of aerobic exercise include cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distance training.
- Anaerobic exercise – is also called strength or Resistance training and can firm, strengthen, and tone your muscles, as well as improve bone strength, Balance, and Coordination. Examples of strength moves are pushups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells. Anaerobic exercise also include weight training,functional training, eccentric training, Interval training, sprinting and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength.
- Flexibility – exercises stretch and lengthen your muscles. Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber. The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.
- Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracy, agility, power, and speed. Sometimes the terms ‘dynamic’ and ‘static’ are used.
- ‘Dynamic’ exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow.
- Static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise).
PHYSICAL EXERCISES (BODY WEIGHT EXERCISES)
- LOUNGING (Prone)
- KNEE PUSH-UPS/90 degrees Push Up
- HEAD LIFT
- SQUAT THRUST
- SIDE PLANK
- LOUNGING FORWARD (with hands forward)
- FEET TWIST (while sitting)
- TIP TOE
- SITTING BODY TWIST
- The flat gong commonly known as gangsaand played by the groups in the Cordillera region of the bossed gongs played among the Islam and animist groups in the Southern Philippines.
- 2. Kalaleng or Tongali(nose flute) Because the kalaleng is long and has a narrow internal diameter, it is possible to play different harmonics through overblowing—even with the rather weak airflow from one nostril.
- 3. Tongatongis a bamboo percussion instrument used by the people of Kalinga to communicate with spirits during house blessings. It is made of bamboo cut in various lengths. When you hit it against soft earth a certain drone reverberates though the instrument’s open mouth. When an entire set of Tongatong is played in interloping rhythm and prolonged with the tribal chanting, it could put the audience and the dancers in a trance
- 4. Diwdiw-asis 5 or more different size of slender bamboo that is tied together.
- 5. Saggeypoit is a bamboo pipe that is closed on one end by a node with the open end held against the lower lip of the player as he blows directly across the top. The pipe can be played individually by one person or in ensembles of three or more.
- 6. Solibao is hallow wooden Igorot drug topped with pig skin or lizard skin this is played by striking the drum head using the palm of the hand.
- 7. Bungkaka- bamboo buzzer.
- 8. Kullitong- polychordal bamboo tube zither.
- 9. Ulibaw- bamboo jaw’s harp
- 12. Paldong- bamboo lip-valley flute
- Kulintangrefers to a racked gong chimeinstrument played in the southern islands of the Philippines, along with its varied accompanying ensembles.
- ensembles. Different groups have different ways of playing the kulintang. Two major groups seem to stand-out in kulintangmusic. These are the Maguindanaon and the Maranaw. The kulintang instrument itself could be traced to either the introduction of gongs to Southeast Asia from China from before the 10th century CE, or more likely, to the introduction of bossed gong chimes from Java in the 15th century.
- Harana and Kundiman
- The Harana and Kundimanare lyrical songs popular in the Malaysian Islands dating back to the Spanish period.
- In the 1920s Harana and Kundiman became more mainstream musical styles led by performers such as Atang de la Rama, Jovita Fuentes, Conching Rosal, Sylvia La Torreand Ruben Tagalog.
- The Rondallais performed on ensembles comprisingmandolin instruments of various sizes called banduria composed on the Iberian tradition. Other instruments including guitars, is also performed. It is original to Spain
- The Tiniklingis a Philippine dance which involves two individual performers hitting bamboopoles, using them to beat, tap, and slide on the ground, in co-ordination with one or more dancers who steps over and in between poles
- The Cariñosa(meaning loving or affectionate one), is a Philippine national dance from the María Clara suite of Philippine folk dances, where the fan, and handkerchiefplays an instrument role as it places the couple in romance scenario.
- OPM (Original Pilipino Music)
Original Pilipino Music, now more commonly termed Original Pinoy Music, Original Philippine Music or OPM for short, originally referred only to Philippine pop songs, particularly ballads, such as those popular after the collapse of its predecessor,the Manila Sound in the late 1970s, up until the present. In the 1970s, popular OPM artists included Nora Aunor, Pilita Corrales, Eddie Peregrina, Victor Wood and Asin, among others. The more major commercial Philippine pop music artists were Pops Fernandez, Claire dela Fuente, Didith Reyes, Rico Puno, Ryan Cayabyab, Basil Valdez, Celeste Legaspi, Hajji Alejandro, Rey Valera, Freddie Aguilar, Imelda Papin, Eva Eugenio, Nonoy Zuniga and many others. Between the 1980s and 1990s, OPM was led by artists such as Regine Velasquez, Sharon Cuneta, APO Hiking Society, José Mari Chan, Dingdong Avanzado, Rodel Naval, Janno Gibbs, Ogie Alcasid, Joey Albert, Lilet, Martin Nievera, Manilyn Reynes, Lea Salonga, Vina Morales, Raymond Lauchengco, JoAnne Lorenzana, Francis Magalona and Gary Valenciano, among many others. In the 1990s, famous artists/bands included Eraserheads, Smokey Mountain, Donna Cruz, Jessa Zaragoza, Ariel Rivera, South Border, AfterImage, Andrew E., Jaya,Lani Misalucha, Rivermaya, Ella May Saison and Roselle Nava, among many others.