Futsal (Portuguese pronunciation: is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller field and mainly played indoors. It can be considered a version of five-a-side football. Its name comes from the Portuguese Futebol de salão , which can be translated as “room football”. It originated from Uruguay in 1930.
In Brazil, futsal is played by more people than football but does not attract as many spectators as the outdoor sport. Several futsal players have moved on to careers as successful professional football players.
Futsal is a game played between two teams of five players each, one of whom is the goalkeeper. Unlimited substitutions are permitted. Unlike some other forms of indoor football, the game is played on a hard court surface delimited by lines; walls or boards are not used. Futsal is also played with a smaller ball with less bounce than a regular football due to the surface of the field. The surface, ball and rules create an emphasis on improvisation, creativity and technique as well as ball control and passing in small spaces.
Summary of rules:
|Length of the field||minimum 25x16m, maximum 42x25m.|
|Ball||Size 4, circumference 62–64 cm, weight between 400-440g at the start of the game.
Dropped from an height of 2m, the first rebound must not be lower than 50 cm or more than 65 cm.
|Time||There are two periods of 20 minutes with time stopping at every dead ball. Between the two periods there is a break of 15 minutes. Each team may use one time-out per half, which lasts one minute. Some lower leagues and tournaments use 24 minute periods with running time.|
|Number of players||There are five players for each team in the field, one of them as goalkeeper, and a maximum number of 12 players that can be used each match. Substitutions are unlimited and on-the-fly.|
|Fouls||All direct free kicks count as accumulated fouls. A direct free kick is awarded for kicking, tripping, charging, jumping, pushing, striking, tackling, holding, spitting, and deliberate handling. Indirect free kicks, such as playing dangerously and impeding, do not count as accumulated fouls. A team is warned by the referee when they commit five accumulated fouls in a half.|
|Cards||A yellow card is shown for unsporting behavior, dissent, time wasting, encroachment, persistent infringement, and illegal subbing. A red card is shown for serious foul play, violent conduct, spitting, denying an obvious goal-scoring opportunity, abusive language, and receiving a second yellow. Red carded players are ejected from the game and their team must play short for two minutes or until the other team scores a goal.|
|Free kicks||Taken from the spot of the infringement or on the line of the penalty area nearest the infringement (indirect only). All opponents must be at least 5m away from the ball. The kick must be taken within four seconds or an indirect kick is awarded to the other team.|
|Kick from the second penalty mark||Awarded when a team commits 6 or more accumulated fouls in a half. Second penalty mark is 10m from the goal, opponents must be behind the ball, goalkeeper must be at least 5m away|
|Penalty kick||6m from the center of the goal for fouls inside the 6m goal keeper’s area.|
|Goalkeeper||When he’s in possession of the ball, the goalkeeper has 4 seconds to get rid of the ball. If taking too long, the referee will give an indirect kick to the other team. The goalkeeper may play freely when in the opponent’s half.|
|Goalkeeper pass-back restriction||Once the goalkeeper has released the ball either by kicking or throwing, the goalkeeper may not touch it again until the ball goes out of play or is touched by an opponent. The sanction for violation is an indirect free kick. The goalkeeper may receive the ball freely when on the opponent’s half|
|Kick-in||A kick-in is used instead of a throw-in. The player must place the ball on the touchline or outside but not more than 25 cm from the place the ball when out of play. The ball must be stationary and the kick-in must be taken within 4 seconds from the time the player is ready. During kick-in, opponents must stand at least 5m from the ball. If four seconds elapses or an illegal kick is taken, the referee will award a kick-in to the other team. It is not allowed to score directly from a kick-in: the goal is valid only if someone else touches the ball before it enters in goal.|
|Goal clearance||A goal clearance is used instead of a goal kick. The goalkeeper must throw the ball with their hands and it must leave the penalty area within four seconds. If goal clearance is taken illegally the goalkeeper may retry, but the referee will not reset the count. If four seconds elapses, the other team gets an indirect kick on the penalty area line.|
|Corner kick||The ball must be placed inside the arc nearest to the point where the ball crossed the goal line and the opponent must stand on field at least 5 m from the corner arch until the ball is in play. The corner kick must be taken within 4 seconds of being ready or else a goal clearance will be awarded to the other team. The ball is in play when it is kicked and moves.|
|Referees||For international matches, there must be two referees: one (first referee) is positioned on the touchline near the timekeeper table and communicates with the timekeeper, while the other (second referee) is in the opposite side of the field. At the timekeeper table there is a timekeeper and a third referee, who controls the teams’ benches.
In minor events, the third referees and the timekeeper are not used. 
In human anatomy, the deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder,
it consists of at least seven groups that can be independently coordinated by the central nervous system.
The biceps brachii commonly known as the biceps, is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
Triceps brachii muscle:
- The triceps brachii muscle(Latinfor “three-headed muscle of the arm”) is the large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm).
Abdominal internal oblique muscle:
- The internal oblique muscle (of the abdomen) is the intermediate muscle of the abdomen, lying deep to (below) the external obliqueand just superficial to (above) the transverse abdominal muscle.
Erector Spinae Muscles:
- The erector spinæ (/ˌɨˈrɛktərˈspiːniː/ ə-rek–tər spee-nee) is a muscle group of the back in humans and other animals, which extends the vertebral column (bending the spine such that the head moves posteriorly while the chest protrudes anteriorly). It is also known as sacrospinalis in older texts. A more modern term is extensor spinae, though this is not in widespread use
The triceps surae “three-headed [muscle] of the calf”) is a pair ofmuscles located at the calf – the two-headed gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into thecalcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the posterior leg, commonly known as the calf muscle.
- The triceps surae is connected to the foot through the Achilles tendon, and has 3 heads deriving from the 2 major masses of muscle.
- The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femurdirectly above the knee.
- The deep (profundis) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia.
The pectoralis major (from Latin: pectus, breast) is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breastin the female. Underneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle. In sports as well as bodybuilding, the pectoral muscles may colloquially be referred to as “pecs“.
Trapezius is either one of two large superficial muscles that extend longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade). Its functions are to move the scapulae and support the arm.
Hamstring is any of the three tendons contracted
by three posterior thigh muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris), and the term is often also used to refer to the muscles themselves. The hamstring tendons make up the borders of the space behind the knee; the muscles are involved in knee flexion and hip extension.
When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone, muscle, tendon and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, increased metabolism, increased fitness, improved cardiac function, and improved lipoprotein lipid profiles, including elevated HDL (“good”) cholesterol.
Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman, Highland games, shotput, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably American football, wrestling, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, poledancing (or polefitness), hockey and football.
MAJOR MUSCLE GROUP IN STRENGTHENING TRAINING:
- Quadriceps(front of thighs)
- Hamstrings(back of thighs)
- Latsand trapezius (back)
- Biceps(front of arms)
- Triceps(back of arms)
- Abdomen and obliques(belly)
- Lower back
Quadriceps femoris muscle
is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur.
It is subdivided into four separate portions or ‘heads’, which have received distinctive names:
- Rectus femorisoccupies the middle of the thigh, covering most of the other three quadriceps muscles. It originates on the ilium. It is named from its straight course.
- The other three lie deep to rectus femoris and originate from the body of thefemur, which they cover from thetrochanters to the condyles:
- Vastus lateralisis on the lateral side of the femur (i.e. on the outer side of the thigh).
- Vastus medialisis on the medial side of the femur (i.e. on the inner part thigh).
- Vastus intermediuslies between vastus lateralis and vastus medialis on the front of the femur (i.e. on the top or front of the thigh), but deep to the rectus femoris. Typically, it cannot be seen without dissection of the rectus femoris.
All four parts of the quadriceps muscle ultimately insert into the tibial tuberosity of the tibia. This is via the patella, where the quadriceps tendon becomes the patellar ligament, which then attaches to the tibia.
CORE SUBJECT DESCRIPTION:
Physical Education and Health offers experiential learning for learners to adopt an active life for fitness and lifelong health. The knowledge, skills and understanding include physical and health literacy competencies support them in accessing, synthesizing and evaluating information, making informed decisions, enhancing and advocating their own as wells as other’s fitness and health.
CONTENT OF HOPE 3
- TRADITIONAL (FOLK AND ETHNIC)
- MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY
- BALLROOM (RECREATIONAL AND COMPETETIVE)
- CHEER DANCE
- HIP-HOP/STREET DANCE
- FESTIVAL DANCE
- TRADITIONAL (FOLK DANCE)
- A dance performed at social functions by people with little or no professional training, often to traditionally based music, generally designed for public performance or the stage, execution dominated by an inherited tradition rather than innovation. New dancers learn informally by observing others.
- EXAMPLES OF FOLK DANCE:
- ØSALAKOT DANCE
Improving Your Eating Habits:
REFLECT on all of your specific eating habits, both bad and good; and, your common triggers for unhealthy eating.
REPLACE your unhealthy eating habits with healthier ones.
REINFORCE your new, healthier eating habits.
Taking on new, healthier habits may mean that you:
1. Drink skim or low-fat (1%) milk instead of 2% or whole milk.
2. Eat fruit for dessert instead of cookies (or skip dessert all together).
3. Schedule times to eat your meals and snacks.
4. Plan and prepare healthy meals and snacks to increase your chance of success.
5. Keep healthy snacks at work. Pack healthy lunches that you make at home.
6. Pay attention to your feelings of hunger. Learn the difference between physical hunger and habitual eating. 7. Put down your fork between bites.
8. Wait until you have swallowed your mouthful of food before taking the next bite.
9. Eating when you are feel worried, tense, or bored also leads to overeating.
10. Give your body and your brain time to relax from the stress of daily life. Take a mental or physical break to help you feel better without turning to food as a reward
11. Replace your candy dish with a bowl of fruit or nuts.
12. When you do have unhealthy foods in your house, put them in a place that is hard for you to reach
Differentiates Types of Eating:
- Fueling for performance
- Emotional Eating
- Social eating
- Eating while watching TV or sports event